If you have been having difficulty conceiving, some additional testing beyond bloodwork may be warranted depending on your situation. Here are the most common fertility tests, how they work, and what they look for: A hystersalpingogram (HSG) is used to determine whether the fallopian tubes are open (patent) and that the uterine cavity is normal. It involves placing a catheter through the cervix and a contrasting dye is injected into the uterine cavity and x-rays are taken.

A sonohistogram or saline sonogram is similar to an HSG, except it uses ultrasound instead of x-ray to visualize the uterine cavity. A catheter is used to insert saline into the uterine cavity then an ultrasound probe is placed in the vagina. This test is used to diagnose fibroids and polyps as well as other structural abnormalities.

A hysteroscopy is used to treat uterine abnormalities such as polyps or fibroids discovered during a sonohistogram. The hysteroscope, a thin viewing tool that’s passed through the cervix, is able to both visualize the inside of the uterus as well as remove any polyps and fibroids in the uterine lining that may interfere with fertility.

A laparscopy is a surgical procedure to look inside the pelvic cavity and abdomen to identify whether there is any endometriosis, scar tissue, or fibroids clearly visible around the reproductive organs. A laparoscopy requires anesthesia and is an invasive technique so is only used when warranted.