Causes of Infertility

Anti-sperm Antibodies: What They Are and How They Affect Fertility

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Anti-sperm antibodies are a type of immune response that can affect fertility in both men and women. These antibodies are produced by the immune system when it mistakenly identifies sperm as foreign invaders, and can cause the body to attack and destroy sperm cells. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at what anti-sperm antibodies are, how they affect fertility, and what can be done to address the issue.

What are Anti-sperm Antibodies?

Anti-sperm antibodies are a type of antibody that the immune system produces in response to exposure to sperm. These antibodies are typically produced in response to physical trauma, infection, or surgery, but can also be produced spontaneously for no apparent reason. There are two main types of anti-sperm antibodies: IgG and IgA. IgG antibodies are typically found in the blood, while IgA antibodies are found in mucosal tissues such as the cervix and uterus. Both types of antibodies can cause fertility problems by binding to sperm and preventing them from fertilizing an egg.

How do Anti-sperm Antibodies Affect Fertility?

Anti-sperm antibodies can affect fertility in several ways. In men, anti-sperm antibodies can cause the body to produce fewer sperm or damage the sperm that are produced. This can lead to decreased sperm motility (the ability of sperm to move), as well as decreased sperm count and morphology (the shape and size of sperm). In severe cases, anti-sperm antibodies can cause complete infertility.

In women, anti-sperm antibodies can cause a similar set of problems. These antibodies can interfere with the fertilization process by preventing sperm from reaching the egg. They can also cause problems with implantation, which can result in a failed pregnancy or miscarriage.

How are Anti-sperm Antibodies Diagnosed?

There are several tests that can be used to diagnose anti-sperm antibodies. These include blood tests, semen analysis, and post-coital tests. Blood tests are used to measure the levels of anti-sperm antibodies in the bloodstream. Semen analysis involves examining a sample of semen under a microscope to see if there are antibodies attached to the sperm. Post-coital tests are used to examine the cervical mucus after sexual intercourse to see if there are any antibodies present.

What are the Treatment Options for Anti-sperm Antibodies?

The treatment options for anti-sperm antibodies depend on the severity of the problem and the underlying cause. In some cases, the antibodies may disappear on their own over time, without any treatment. In other cases, treatment may be necessary to improve fertility.

For men, treatment options may include medication to suppress the immune system or surgery to remove the affected tissue. In women, treatment may include intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to bypass the affected area.

Can acupuncture help reduce Anti-sperm Antibodies?

Some studies have suggested that acupuncture may have a positive effect on the immune system, which could potentially help reduce the production of anti-sperm antibodies.

Studies have shown that acupuncture can stimulate the release of certain neurotransmitters and hormones, such as endorphins and serotonin, which can help reduce inflammation and improve immune function. It has also been suggested that acupuncture may help regulate the production of cytokines, which are proteins that play a role in immune system regulation.

One study conducted in China in 2014 found that acupuncture may help improve sperm motility and reduce the production of anti-sperm antibodies in men with infertility. However, this study was small and further research is needed to confirm these findings.

In Conclusion

Anti-sperm antibodies can be a frustrating and challenging issue for couples trying to conceive. However, with the right diagnosis and treatment, many couples are able to overcome this obstacle and achieve their dream of having a child. If you suspect that you or your partner may be experiencing fertility problems, it’s important to speak with a doctor or fertility specialist who can recommend the appropriate testing and treatment options for your specific situation.


  1. Zhang M, Huang G, Lu F, Paulus WE, Sterzik K. Influence of acupuncture on idiopathic male infertility in assisted reproductive technology. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2002;22(3):228-230. doi: 10.1007/BF02831026
  2. Balk J, Catov J, Horn B, Gecsi K, Wakim A. The relationship between perceived stress, acupuncture, and pregnancy rates among IVF patients: a pilot study. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2010;16(3):154-157. doi: 10.1016/j.ctcp.2010.02.005
  3. Wang J, Wang Y, Jin H, et al. Effects of acupuncture on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Fertil Steril. 2018;110(3):e1-e2. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.06.005
  4. Zhang X, Wang J, Liu X, et al. Clinical observation on acupuncture combined with medication for idiopathic oligospermia male infertility. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2014;34(7):661-664.

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Ghoncheh & Emily!

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